Question: Which Of The Following Best Defines A Temperate Phage?

What do temperate phages do?

Temperate bacteriophages display a lysogenic life cycle, which requires them to integrate their viral genome into the bacterial chromosome.

This is in contrast to virulent bacteriophages, which immediately produce progeny and lyse the host cell..

Why is lambda phage called temperate phage?

In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notable coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle. Many (but not all) temperate phages can integrate their genomes into their host bacterium’s chromosome, together becoming a lysogen as the phage genome becomes a prophage.

Is lambda DNA circular or linear?

Our lambda DNA is linear. We do not sell Lambda DNA in a circular form.

Who discovered lambda phage?

Esther LederbergLambda was originally discovered in 1951 by Esther Lederberg (1951) at the University of Wisconsin (Madison), when she serendipitously found it was released from the laboratory Escherichia coli strain K-12 after ultraviolet irradiation.

Is a temperate phage A bacteriophage?

Temperate phages are bacteriophages that can choose between the lytic and the lysogenic pathways of development. The lytic pathway is similar to that of virulent phages. … It may be done by physical incorporation of the phage genome into host genome, or the prophage may be integrated as a stably maintained plasmid.

What is the benefit for a bacteriophage to be a temperate or lysogenic virus?

Because all of the virus particles do not infect with 100% efficiency. What is the benefit, for a virus, to be a temperate or lysogenic virus? A single infection event can produce millions of new viral particles instead of hundreds of viral particles.

How do phages kill bacteria?

Bacteriophages kill bacteria by making them burst or lyse. This happens when the virus binds to the bacteria. A virus infects the bacteria by injecting its genes (DNA or RNA). The phage virus copies itself (reproduces) inside the bacteria.

Are bacteriophages harmful to humans?

Bacteriophages are much more specific than antibiotics. They are typically harmless not only to the host organism but also to other beneficial bacteria, such as the gut microbiota, reducing the chances of opportunistic infections.

What is lambda phage vector?

Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli. … Lambda phage consists of a virus particle including a head (also known as a capsid), tail and tail fibers. The head contains the phage’s double-stranded circular DNA genome.

What type of infection is caused by a temperate phage?

Phage type that is capable of giving rise to either productive infections, during some infections, or lysogenic infections at other times. Upon infection a temperate phage must choose between reductive (lysogenic) and productive infections.

What is a lysogenic phage?

Lysogenic phages incorporate their nucleic acid into the chromosome of the host cell and replicate with it as a unit without destroying the cell. Under certain conditions lysogenic phages can be induced to follow a lytic cycle.

What is lambda phage DNA?

Lambda DNA, a linear, double-stranded phage DNA containing 12 bp single-stranded complementary 5′-ends, is derived from an Escherichia coli bacteriophage (Bacteriophage lambda cI857 Sam7). Lambda DNA can also be used as a substrate in restriction enzyme activity assays. …

Does temperate phage form plaques?

If a phage lysogenized a host cell immediately upon infection, it would never form a plaque. Instead, when temperate phage infects a population of exponentially growing cells, each phage produces a plaque with a “bulls-eye” plaque morphology, a turbid center surrounded by a ring of clearing.

What is meant by temperate phage?

In virology, temperate refers to the ability of some bacteriophages (notably coliphage λ) to display a lysogenic life cycle. Many (but not all) temperate phages can integrate their genomes into their host bacterium’s chromosome, together becoming a lysogen as the phage genome becomes a prophage.

What is temperate virus?

Definition. noun. A virus that does not cause immediate lysis following entry to its host but remains in a latent state, replicating its genome along with the host’s genome.

Is a virus a bacteriophage?

A bacteriophage is a type of virus that infects bacteria. In fact, the word “bacteriophage” literally means “bacteria eater,” because bacteriophages destroy their host cells. All bacteriophages are composed of a nucleic acid molecule that is surrounded by a protein structure.

Is lambda a temperate phage?

It was discovered by Esther Lederberg in 1950. The wild type of this virus has a temperate life cycle that allows it to either reside within the genome of its host through lysogeny or enter into a lytic phase, during which it kills and lyses the cell to produce offspring.

What is the difference between a virulent and temperate virus?

Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). … Phages that replicate only via the lytic cycle are known as virulent phages while phages that replicate using both lytic and lysogenic cycles are known as temperate phages.