Question: What Are The Elements Of Epidemiology?

What are the 3 major types of epidemiological studies?

Three major types of epidemiologic studies are cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies (study designs are discussed in more detail in IOM, 2000).

A cohort, or longitudinal, study follows a defined group over time..

What are the 3 main elements of the definition of epidemiology?

Epidemiology includes assessment of the distribution (including describing demographic characteristics of an affected population), determinants (including a study of possible risk factors), and the application to control health problems (such as closing a restaurant).

What are the tools of epidemiology?

Proportions, ratios, rates, prevalence, incidence, study designs, bias, confounding, effect modification, odds and risk ratios, statistical power, and confidence intervals are defined and discussed. Descriptive epidemiology is concerned with describing the distribution of disease by person, place, and time.

What are the 5 main objectives of epidemiology?

In the mid-1980s, five major tasks of epidemiology in public health practice were identified: public health surveillance, field investigation, analytic studies, evaluation, and linkages.

What is the role of epidemiology?

It is the scientific method of investigation problem-solving used by disease detectives— epidemiologists, laboratory scientists, statisticians, physicians and other health care providers, and public health professionals—to get to the root of health problems and outbreaks in a community.

What are the basic principles of epidemiology?

Uses of EpidemiologyCount health-related events.Describe the distribution of health-related events in the population.Describe clinical patterns.Identify risk factors for developing diseases.Identify causes or determinants of disease.Identify control and/or preventive measures.More items…•

What are the components of epidemiology?

The epidemiologic triangle is made up of three parts: agent, host and environment.Agent. The agent is the microorganism that actually causes the disease in question. … Host. The agent infects the host, which is the organism that carries the disease. … Environment. … HIV.

What are the four methods of epidemiology?

Epidemiological studies generally fall into four broad categories:cross-sectional studies.cohort studies.intervention studies.

What is a risk in epidemiology?

Risk. (1) Epidemiological definition. The probability that an event will occur e.g. that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period of time or age. Formally defined as the proportion of initially disease free individuals who develop disease over a defined period of observation.

What are the limitations of epidemiology?

Problems of accuracy of diagnosis or causes of death on death certificates, estimates of population, migration from areas of study, and the issue of “ecological fallacy” are discussed. Retrospective studies have such problems as recall of previous environmental exposure, selection bias and survivor bias.

Is Epidemiologist a doctor?

Are epidemiologists considered medical doctors? No. While epidemiologists study and investigate the causes and sources of diseases in much the same way as medical doctors, they’re not considered actual physicians.

What are the 5 W’s of epidemiology?

The difference is that epidemiologists tend to use synonyms for the 5 W’s: diagnosis or health event (what), person (who), place (where), time (when), and causes, risk factors, and modes of transmission (why/how).

What are the aims of epidemiology?

The principal aim of epidemiology is to identify factors related to the occurrence of disease. Identification of these factors both causal ( causation) and risk factors, enable developing a rational basis for prevention ( epidemiology, prevention).

What is the best definition for epidemiology?

By definition, epidemiology is the study (scientific, systematic, and data-driven) of the distribution (frequency, pattern) and determinants (causes, risk factors) of health-related states and events (not just diseases) in specified populations (neighborhood, school, city, state, country, global).

Who is epidemiologist?

Often called “Disease Detectives”, epidemiologists search for the cause of disease, identify people who are at risk, determine how to control or stop the spread or prevent it from happening again. Physicians, veterinarians, scientists, and other health professionals often train to be “Disease Detectives”.

What are the two goals of epidemiology?

The objectives of epidemiology include the following: to identify the etiology or cause of disease. to determine the extent of disease. to study the progression of disease.

What is epidemiology and examples?

Epidemiological studies measure the risk of illness or death in an exposed population compared to that risk in an identical, unexposed population (for example, a population the same age, sex, race and social status as the exposed population).

What are the two types of epidemiology?

Epidemiologic studies fall into two categories: experimental and observational.